Examinando por Autor "Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio"
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- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoThe 20 × 20 Latin American society of hypertension target(2015-01) Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Molina, Dora I.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoA community-based comprehensive intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertension (HOPE 4)(2019-10-05) Schwalm, Jon-David; McCready, Tara; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Yusoff, Khalid; Attaran, Amir; Lamelas, Pablo; Camacho López, Paul Anthony; Majid, Fadhlina; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Thabane, Lehana; Islam, Shofiqul; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim; EverestBackground Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Methods HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n=727), and 14 (n=644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in Framingham Risk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. Findings All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n=1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was −6·40% (95% CI 8·00 to −4·80) in the control group and −11·17% (−12·88 to −9·47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of −4·78% (95% CI −7·11 to −2·44, p<0·0001). There was an absolute 11·45 mm Hg (95% CI −14·94 to −7·97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0·41 mmol/L (95% CI −0·60 to −0·23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p<0·0001). Change in blood pressure control status (<140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p<0·0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. Interpretation A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. Funding Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Grand Challenges Canada; Ontario SPOR Support Unit and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Boehringer Ingelheim; Department of Management of Non-Communicable Diseases, WHO; and Population Health Research Institute.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAdvancing the global public health agenda for NAFLD. A consensus statement(Consensus Statement, 2022-01-05) Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Mark, Henry E.; Anstee, Quentin M.; Arab, Juan Pablo; Batterham, Rachel L.; Castera, Laurent; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Crespo, Javier; Cusi, Kenneth; Ashworth Dirac, M.; Francque, Sven; George, Jacob; Hagström, Hannes; Huang, Terry T.-K.; Ismail, Mona H.; Kautz, Achim; Kumar Sarin, Shiv; Loomba, Rohit; Miller, Veronica; Newsome, Philip N.; Ninburg, Michael; Ocama, Ponsiano; Ratziu, Vlad; Rinella, Mary; Romero, Diana; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A.; Valenti, Luca; Wai-Sun Wong, Vincent; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Younossi, Zobair M.; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; NAFLD Consensus Consortium; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; MasiraNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a potentially serious liver disease that affects approximately one-quarter of the global adult population, causing a substantial burden of ill health with wide-ranging social and economic implications. It is a multisystem disease and is considered the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome. Unlike other highly prevalent conditions, NAFLD has received little attention from the global public health community. Health system and public health responses to NAFLD have been weak and fragmented, and, despite its pervasiveness, NAFLD is largely unknown outside hepatology and gastroenterology. There is only a nascent global public health movement addressing NAFLD, and the disease is absent from nearly all national and international strategies and policies for non-communicable diseases, including obesity. In this global Delphi study, a multidisciplinary group of experts developed consensus statements and recommendations, which a larger group of collaborators reviewed over three rounds until consensus was achieved. The resulting consensus statements and recommendations address a broad range of topics — from epidemiology, awareness, care and treatment to public health policies and leadership — that have general relevance for policy-makers, health-care practitioners, civil society groups, research institutions and affected populations. These recommendations should provide a strong foundation for a comprehensive public health response to NAFLD.
- PublicaciónRestringidoAged garlic extract improves adiponectin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome : A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study(2013-01) Gómez Arbeláez, Diego; Lahera, Vicente; Oubiña, Maria del Pilar; Valero Muñoz, Maria; De las Heras, Natalia; Rodríguez, Yudy; García, Ronald G.; Camacho López, Paul Anthony; Lopez-Jaramillo, PatricioBackground. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been shown to have important benefits in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the risk factors that constitute the cluster of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods and Design. Double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of 1.2 g/day of AGE (Kyolic), for 24 weeks of treatment (12 weeks of AGE and 12 weeks of placebo), on subjects with MS. Results. The administration of AGE increased the plasma levels of adiponectin (𝑃 = 0.027). No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion. The present results have shown for the first time that the administration of AGE for 12 weeks increased plasma adiponectin levels in patients with MS. This suggests that AGE might be a useful, novel, nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention to increase adiponectin and to prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications in individuals with MS.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAlcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease, cancer, injury, admission to hospital, and mortality : A prospective cohort study(2015-10-14) Smyth, Andrew; Teo, Koon; Rangarajan, Sumathy; O’Donnell, Martin J.; Zhang, Xiaohe; Rana, Punam; Leong, Darryl P.; Dagenais, Gilles; Seron, Pamela; Rosengren, Annika; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Oguz, Ayetkin; Chifamba, Jephat; Diaz, Rafael; Lear, Scott A.; Avezum, Alvaro; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan, Viswanathan; Szuba, Andrzej; Wei, Li; Yang, Wang; Jian, Bo; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim; The PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) Study investigatorsBackground Alcohol consumption is proposed to be the third most important modifiable risk factor for death and disability. However, alcohol consumption has been associated with both benefits and harms, and previous studies were mostly done in high-income countries. We investigated associations between alcohol consumption and outcomes in a prospective cohort of countries at different economic levels in five continents. Methods We included information from 12 countries participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, a prospective cohort study of individuals aged 35–70 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to study associations with mortality (n=2723), cardiovascular disease (n=2742), myocardial infarction (n=979), stroke (n=817), alcohol-related cancer (n=764), injury (n=824), admission to hospital (n=8786), and for a composite of these outcomes (n=11 963). Findings We included 114 970 adults, of whom 12 904 (11%) were from high-income countries (HICs), 24 408 (21%) were from upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), 48 845 (43%) were from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), and 28 813 (25%) were from low-income countries (LICs). Median follow-up was 4·3 years (IQR 3·0–6·0). Current drinking was reported by 36 030 (31%) individuals, and was associated with reduced myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76 [95% CI 0·63–0·93]), but increased alcohol-related cancers (HR 1·51 [1·22–1·89]) and injury (HR 1·29 [1·04–1·61]). High intake was associated with increased mortality (HR 1·31 [1·04–1·66]). Compared with never drinkers, we identified significantly reduced hazards for the composite outcome for current drinkers in HICs and UMICs (HR 0·84 [0·77–0·92]), but not in LMICs and LICs, for which we identified no reductions in this outcome (HR 1·07 [0·95–1·21]; pinteraction<0·0001). Interpretation Current alcohol consumption had differing associations by clinical outcome, and differing associations by income region. However, we identified sufficient commonalities to support global health strategies and national initiatives to reduce harmful alcohol use. Funding Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, AstraZeneca (Canada), Sanofi-Aventis (France and Canada), Boehringer Ingelheim (Germany and Canada), Servier, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, King Pharma, and national or local organisations in participating countries.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAnálogos de incretina e inhibidores de la DPP-4 : ¿Qué papel desempeñan en la prevención primaria de las enfermedades cardiovasculares?(2013-07) Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Velandia Carrillo, Carlos; Castillo, Gabriela; Sánchez Solano, Tatiana; Álvarez Camacho, JulieLa diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es una enfermedad altamente prevalente, la cual ha mostrado un incremento acelerado en las últimas décadas, pues se ha duplicado el número de personas con esta enfermedad. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos revelan que el 70% de las muertes por diabetes son causadas por eventos cardiovasculares (enfermedad coronaria y accidente cerebrovascular). Recientemente se ha observado una expansión en el descubrimiento de medicamentos para el manejo de la DM2, los mismos que, para su introducción en el mercado, deben mostrar benefi cios adicionales para el sistema cardiovascular. Este artículo tiene como propósito determinar el papel de los nuevos medicamentos hipoglicemiantes que actúan en el sistema de las incretinas y sus efectos en la prevención primaria de eventos cardiovasculares.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAnger or emotional upset and heavy physical exertion as triggers of stroke. The INTERSTROKE study(European Society of Cardiology, 2022-01-14) Smyth, Andrew; O’Donnell, Martin; Hankey, Graeme J.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Xavier, Denis; Zhang, Hongye; Canavan, Michelle; Damasceno, Albertino; Langhorne, Peter; Avezum, Alvaro; Pogosova, Nana; Oguz, Aytekin; Yusuf, Salim; INTERSTROKE investigators; MasiraAims In INTERSTROKE, we explored the association of anger or emotional upset and heavy physical exertion with acute stroke, to determine the importance of triggers in a large, international population. Methods and results INTERSTROKE was a case–control study of first stroke in 32 countries. Using 13 462 cases of acute stroke we adopted a case-crossover approach to determine whether a trigger within 1 hour of symptom onset (case period), vs. the same time on the previous day (control period), was associated with acute stroke. A total of 9.2% (n = 1233) were angry or emotional upset and 5.3% (n = 708) engaged in heavy physical exertion during the case period. Anger or emotional upset in the case period was associated with increased odds of all stroke [odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 99% confidence interval (CI), 1.15–1.64], ischaemic stroke (OR 1.22, 99% CI, 1.00–1.49), and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.05, 99% CI 1.40–2.99). Heavy physical exertion in the case period was associated with increased odds of ICH (OR 1.62, 99% CI 1.03–2.55) but not with all stroke or ischaemic stroke. There was no modifying effect by region, prior cardiovascular disease, risk factors, cardiovascular medications, time, or day of symptom onset. Compared with exposure to neither trigger during the control period, the odds of stroke associated with exposure to both triggers were not additive. Conclusion Acute anger or emotional upset was associated with the onset of all stroke, ischaemic stroke, and ICH, while acute heavy physical exertion was associated with ICH only.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAnger or emotional upset and heavy physical exertion as triggers of stroke: The INTERSTROKE study(2022-01-14) Smyth, Andrew; O’Donnell, Martin; Hankey, Graeme J.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Xavier, Denis; Zhang, Hongye; Canavan, Michelle; Damasceno, Albertino; Langhorne, Peter; Alvaro, Avezum; Pogosova, Nana; Oguz, Aytekin; Yusuf, Salim; INTERSTROKE investigators; MasiraAims In INTERSTROKE, we explored the association of anger or emotional upset and heavy physical exertion with acute stroke, to determine the importance of triggers in a large, international population. Methods and results INTERSTROKE was a case–control study of first stroke in 32 countries. Using 13 462 cases of acute stroke we adopted a case-crossover approach to determine whether a trigger within 1 hour of symptom onset (case period), vs. the same time on the previous day (control period), was associated with acute stroke. A total of 9.2% (n = 1233) were angry or emotional upset and 5.3% (n = 708) engaged in heavy physical exertion during the case period. Anger or emotional upset in the case period was associated with increased odds of all stroke [odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 99% confidence interval (CI), 1.15–1.64], ischaemic stroke (OR 1.22, 99% CI, 1.00–1.49), and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.05, 99% CI 1.40–2.99). Heavy physical exertion in the case period was associated with increased odds of ICH (OR 1.62, 99% CI 1.03–2.55) but not with all stroke or ischaemic stroke. There was no modifying effect by region, prior cardiovascular disease, risk factors, cardiovascular medications, time, or day of symptom onset. Compared with exposure to neither trigger during the control period, the odds of stroke associated with exposure to both triggers were not additive. Conclusion Acute anger or emotional upset was associated with the onset of all stroke, ischaemic stroke, and ICH, while acute heavy physical exertion was associated with ICH only.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAntihypertensives and Statin Therapy for Primary Stroke Prevention: A Secondary Analysis of the HOPE-3 Tria(Stroke, 2021-05-14) Bosch, Jackie; Lonn, Eva; Dagenais, Gilles; Gao, Peggy; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Zhu, Jun; Pais, Prem; Avezum, Alvaro; Sliwa, Karen; Chazova, Irina E.; Peters, Ron; Held, Claes; Yusoff, Khalid; Lewis, Basil S.; Toff, William D.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Reid, Christopher M.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Yusuf, Salim; Hart, Robert G.; The HOPE-3 Investigators; MasiraBackground and Purpose: The HOPE-3 trial (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation–3) found that antihypertensive therapy combined with a statin reduced first stroke among people at intermediate cardiovascular risk. We report secondary analyses of stroke outcomes by stroke subtype, predictors, treatment effects in key subgroups. Methods: Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, 12 705 participants from 21 countries with vascular risk factors but without overt cardiovascular disease were randomized to candesartan 16 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg daily or placebo and to rosuvastatin 10 mg daily or placebo. The effect of the interventions on stroke subtypes was assessed. Results: Participants were 66 years old and 46% were women. Baseline blood pressure (138/82 mm Hg) was reduced by 6.0/3.0 mm Hg and LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; 3.3 mmol/L) was reduced by 0.90 mmol/L on active treatment. During 5.6 years of follow-up, 169 strokes occurred (117 ischemic, 29 hemorrhagic, 23 undetermined). Blood pressure lowering did not significantly reduce stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.59–1.08]), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.55–1.15]), hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.34–1.48]), or strokes of undetermined origin (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.41–2.08]). Rosuvastatin significantly reduced strokes (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.52–0.95]), with reductions mainly in ischemic stroke (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.37–0.78]) but did not significantly affect hemorrhagic (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.59–2.54]) or strokes of undetermined origin (HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.57–2.95]). The combination of both interventions compared with double placebo substantially and significantly reduced strokes (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.36–0.87]) and ischemic strokes (HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.23–0.72]). Conclusions: Among people at intermediate cardiovascular risk but without overt cardiovascular disease, rosuvastatin 10 mg daily significantly reduced first stroke. Blood pressure lowering combined with rosuvastatin reduced ischemic stroke by 59%. Both therapies are safe and generally well tolerated.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAppropriate prenatal care system : The best way to prevent preeclampsia in Andean countries(2009-04) Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; García, Ronald G.; Reyes, Laura M.; Ruiz, Silvia L.The main cause of maternal mortality in Colombia is preeclampsia; even though it is a major public health problem its etiology and physiopathology remain unknown. However it is believed that endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the development of this disease. Many clinical trials have been carried out to demonstrate the effect of certain interventions to prevent preeclampsia and improve pregnancy outcomes. Our hypothesis is that the reduction of preeclampsia risk could be achieved through an appropriate health system that would provide an opportune and effective prenatal care to pregnant women allowing early diagnosis and treatment of frequent nutritional and health related problems.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAre nutrition-induced epigenetic changes the link between socioeconomic pathology and cardiovascular diseases?(2008-07) Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Silva, Sandra Y.; Rodríguez Salamanca, Narella; Durán Hernández, Álvaro-Hernán; Mosquera, Walter; Castillo, Victor R.The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2) is decreasing in developed countries despite the increase in the percentage of subjects with obesity and other wellrecognized cardiovascular risk factors. In contrast, the recent transition of the economic model experienced by developing countries, characterized by the adoption of a Western lifestyle, that we have named ‘‘socioeconomic pathology,’’ has led to an increase in the burden of CVD. It has been demonstrated that conventional cardiovascular risk factors in developed and developing countries are the same. Why then does the population of developing countries currently have a higher incidence of CVD than that of developed countries if they share the same risk factors? We have proposed the existence of a higher susceptibility to the development of systemic inflammation at low levels of abdominal obesity in the population of developing countries and the consequent endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, DM 2, and CVD. In contrast, an important percentage of obese people living in developed countries have a healthy phenotype and low risk of developing CVD and DM 2. Human epidemiologic studies and experimental dietary interventions in animal models have provided considerable evidence to suggest that nutritional imbalance and metabolic disturbances early in life may later have a persistent effect on an adult’s health that may even be transmitted to the next generations. Epigenetic changes dependent on nutrition could be key in this evolutionary health behavior, acting as a buffering system, permitting the adaptation to environmental conditions by silencing or increasing the expression of certain genes.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAsociación entre niveles de proteína C-reactiva y oxido nítrico con el pronostico de pacientes con enfermedad cerebro vascular isquémica(2015-04) García, Ronald G.; Rosso, Pedro; García, Zaira M.; Álvarez Camacho, Julie; Suárez, Uriel; Gómez Arbeláez, Diego; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Silva Sieger, Federico ArturoIntroduction: Inflammation and alterations in the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) have been involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic value of measuring NO metabolites and inflammatory markers in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and methods: A total of 158 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in an observational cohort study. Between 48 and 72 hours post admission, a fasting blood sample was taken to determine the biochemical profile, inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-β, IL6, TNF-α) and nitrites/nitrates plasma levels. The cohort’s follow-up was conducted for two years to determine the occurrence of a new event (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure) or death of vascular origin. Comparisons between groups were made using the log-rank test. A Cox multivariate regression analysis permitted to determine factors independently associated with the outcome. Results: The mean age was 70.5 ± 12.8 years. 39.2% of the subjects presented the outcome during the first 24 months of follow-up. CRP levels > 12 mg/L (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.07-4.59) and a score > 13 on the NIHSS scale at admission (HR 2.81 95% CI 1.46-5.41) were significantly associated with an increased risk of a new event. The combination of CRP levels < 12 mg/L and nitrites/nitrates levels < 35.5 mmol/L was identified as a protective factor (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.71). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the determination of CRP and NOx levels could be beneficial in clinical practice to stratify the risk of future events or death of vascular origin in acute ischemic stroke patients.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAsociación entre obesidad y baja capacidad muscular y función cardiorrespiratoria, factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en niños colombianos(2013) Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gómez Arbeláez, Diego; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Camacho López, Paul Anthony; Rincón Romero, Katherine; Hormiga, Claudia; Rey, Juan José; Trejos Suárez, Juanita; Velandia Carrillo, C.; Cure Ramírez, P.; Hubal, M.; Hoffman, E.Objetivo: Examinar la asociación entre capacidad cardiorespiratoria y muscular y la presencia de obesidad y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular y metabólico en escolares. Material y método: Estudio de corte transversal, realizado en 336 niños y niñas escolarizados en los grados 5º y 6º de colegios públicos de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Resultados: Se encontraron correlaciones inversas significativas entre índice de masa corporal (IMC) y fuerza de empuñadura ajustada por peso (-0.532) (P<0.001), salto largo (-0.248) (P<0.001) y la prueba de Yo-Yo (-0.321) (P<0.001). La fuerza de empuñadura máxima se correlacionó de forma inversa con la presión arterial sistólica (PAS) (-0.115) (p<0.05). Conclusión: La obesidad evaluada por el IMC y el porcentaje de grasa corporal se relacionan inversamente con la aptitud muscular y cardiorrespiratoria en escolares.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssessing global risk factors for non-fatal injuries from road traffic accidents and falls in adults aged 35–70 years in 17 countries : A cross-sectional analysis of the prospective urban rural Epidemiological (PURE) study(2016) Raina, Parminder; Sohel, Nazmul; Oremus, Mark; Shannon, Harry; Mony, Prem; Kumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Xingyu; Yusoff, Khalid; Yusuf, Rita; Iqbal, Romaina; Szuba, Andrzej; Oguz, Aytekin; Rosengren, Annika; Kruger, Annamarie; Chifamba, Jephat; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Darwish, Ebtihal Ahmad; Dagenais, Gilles; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Seron, Pamela; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim; The PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) Study investigatorsObjectives To assess risk factors associated with non-fatal injuries (NFIs) from road traffic accidents (RTAs) or falls. Methods Our study included 151 609 participants from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study. Participants reported whether they experienced injuries within the past 12 months that limited normal activities. Additional questions elicited data on risk factors. We employed multivariable logistic regression to analyse data. Results Overall, 5979 participants (3.9% of 151 609) reported at least one NFI. Total number of NFIs was 6300: 1428 were caused by RTAs (22.7%), 1948 by falls (30.9%) and 2924 by other causes (46.4%). Married/common law status was associated with fewer falls, but not with RTA. Age 65–70 years was associated with fewer RTAs, but more falls; age 55–64 years was associated with more falls. Male versus female was associated with more RTAs and fewer falls. In lower-middle-income countries, rural residence was associated with more RTAs and falls; in low-income countries, rural residence was associated with fewer RTAs. Previous alcohol use was associated with more RTAs and falls; current alcohol use was associated with more falls. Education was not associated with either NFI type. Conclusions This study of persons aged 35–70 years found that some risk factors for NFI differ according to whether the injury is related to RTA or falls. Policymakers may use these differences to guide the design of prevention policies for RTA-related or fall-related NFI.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events: an analysis of 112,198 individuals from 21 countries in the PURE study(Elsevier, 2021-04-05) Wang, Chuangshi; Hu, Bo; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Lear, Scott A.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Gupta, Rajeev; Alhabib, Khalid F.; Soman, Biju; Abat, Marc Evans M.; Rosengren, Annika; Lanas, Fernando; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Diaz, Rafael; Yusoff, Khalid; Iqbal, Romaina; Chifamba, Jephat; Yeates, Karen; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Kruger, Iolanthe M.; Bahonar, Ahmad; Yusufali, AfzalHussein; Li, Wei; Yusuf, Salim; The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators; MasiraObjectives This study aimed to examine the association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events. Methods Bedtime was recorded based on self-reported habitual time of going to bed in 112,198 participants from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Participants were prospectively followed for 9.2 years. We examined the association between bedtime and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Participants with a usual bedtime earlier than 10PM were categorized as ‘earlier’ sleepers and those who reported a bedtime after midnight as ‘later’ sleepers. Cox frailty models were applied with random intercepts to account for the clustering within centers. Results A total of 5633 deaths and 5346 major cardiovascular events were reported. A U-shaped association was observed between bedtime and the composite outcome. Using those going to bed between 10PM and midnight as the reference group, after adjustment for age and sex, both earlier and later sleepers had a higher risk of the composite outcome (HR of 1.29 [1.22, 1.35] and 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). In the fully adjusted model where demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors (including total sleep duration) and history of diseases were included, results were greatly attenuated, but the estimates indicated modestly higher risks in both earlier (HR of 1.09 [1.03–1.16]) and later sleepers (HR of 1.10 [1.02–1.20]). Conclusion Early (10 PM or earlier) or late (Midnight or later) bedtimes may be an indicator or risk factor of adverse health outcomes.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of dairy consumption with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes in 147 812 individuals from 21 countries(BMJ Journals, 2020-05-18) Bhavadharini, Balaji; Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Sheridan, Patrick; Mohan, Viswanathan; Iqbal, Romaina; Gupta, Rajeev; Lear, Scott; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Mony, Prem; Prasad Varma, Ravi; Kumar, Rajesh; Chifamba, Jephat; Alhabib, Khalid F; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Oguz, Aytekin; Lanas, Fernando; Rozanska, Dorota; Bengtsson Bostrom, Kristina; Yusoff, Khalid; Tsolkile, Lungiswa P; Dans, Antonio; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Orlandini, Andres; Poirier, Paul; Khatib, Rasha; Hu, Bo; Wei, Li; Yin, Lu; Deeraili, Ai; Yeates, Karen; Yusuf, Rita; Ismail, Noorhassim; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Teo, Koon; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim; EverestObjective Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. Methods The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). Results In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. Conclusions Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of dairy intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 21 countries from five continents (PURE) : A prospective cohort study(2018-09-11) Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Sheridan, Patrick; Mohan, Viswanathan; Iqbal, Romaina; Gupta, Rajeev; Lear, Scott A.; Wentzel Viljoen, Edelweiss; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Mony, Prem; Varma, Ravi Prasad; Kumar, Rajesh; Chifamba, Jephat; AlHabib, Khalid F.; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Oguz, Aytekin; Lanas, Fernando; Rozanska, Dorota; Bengtsson Bostrom, Kristina; Yusoff, Khalid; Tsolekile, Lungiswa P.; Dans, Antonio; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Orlandini, Andres; Poirier, Paul P.; Khatib, Rasha; Hu, Bo; Wei, Li; Yin, Lu; Deeraili, Ai; Yeates, Karen; Yusuf, Rita; Ismail, Noorhassim; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Teo, Koon; Anand, Sonia S.; Yusuf, Salim; Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE), Study investigatorsBackground Dietary guidelines recommend minimising consumption of whole-fat dairy products, as they are a source of saturated fats and presumed to adversely affect blood lipids and increase cardiovascular disease and mortality. Evidence for this contention is sparse and few data for the effects of dairy consumption on health are available from low-income and middle-income countries. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between total dairy and specific types of dairy products with mortality and major cardiovascular disease. Methods The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large multinational cohort study of individuals aged 35–70 years enrolled from 21 countries in five continents. Dietary intakes of dairy products for 136 384 individuals were recorded using country-specific validated food frequency questionnaires. Dairy products comprised milk, yoghurt, and cheese. We further grouped these foods into whole-fat and low-fat dairy. The primary outcome was the composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering of participants by centre. Findings Between Jan 1, 2003, and July 14, 2018, we recorded 10 567 composite events (deaths [n=6796] or major cardiovascular events [n=5855]) during the 9·1 years of follow-up. Higher intake of total dairy (>2 servings per day compared with no intake) was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75–0·94; ptrend=0·0004), total mortality (0·83, 0·72–0·96; ptrend=0·0052), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·86, 0·72–1·02; ptrend=0·046), cardiovascular mortality (0·77, 0·58–1·01; ptrend=0·029), major cardiovascular disease (0·78, 0·67–0·90; ptrend=0·0001), and stroke (0·66, 0·53–0·82; ptrend=0·0003). No significant association with myocardial infarction was observed (HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·71–1·11; ptrend=0·163). Higher intake (>1 serving vs no intake) of milk (HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·82–0·99; ptrend=0·0529) and yogurt (0·86, 0·75–0·99; ptrend=0·0051) was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome, whereas cheese intake was not significantly associated with the composite outcome (0·88, 0·76–1·02; ptrend=0·1399). Butter intake was low and was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes (HR 1·09, 95% CI 0·90–1·33; ptrend=0·4113). Interpretation Dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events in a diverse multinational cohort. Funding Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of egg intake with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 177,000 people in 50 countries(American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2020-04-01) Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Mohan, Viswanathan; Lear, Scott; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Wielgosz, Andreas; Seron, Pamela; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Turbide, Ginette; Chifamba, Jephat; AlHabib, Khalid F.; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Szuba, Andrzej; Khatib, Rasha; Altuntas, Yuksel; Liu, Xiaoyun; Iqbal, Romaina; Rosengren, Annika; Yusuf, Rita; Smuts, Marius; Yusufali, AfzalHussein; Li, Ning; Diaz, Rafael; Yusoff, Khalid; Kaur, Manmeet; Soman, Biju; Ismail, Noorhassim; Gupta, Rajeev; Dans, Antonio; Sheridan, Patrick; Teo, Koon; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim; Behalf of the PURE investigators; EverestABSTRACT Background: Eggs are a rich source of essential nutrients, but they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, some guidelines recommend limiting egg consumption. However, there is contradictory evidence on the impact of eggs on diseases, largely based on studies conducted in high-income countries. Objectives: Our aim was to assess the association of egg consumption with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in large global studies involving populations from low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Methods: We studied 146,011 individuals from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Egg consumption was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. We also studied 31,544 patients with vascular disease in 2 multinational prospective studies: ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease). We calculated HRs using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by study center separately within each study. Results: In the PURE study, we recorded 14,700 composite events (8932 deaths and 8477 CVD events). In the PURE study, after excluding those with history of CVD, higher intake of egg (≥7 egg/wk compared with <1 egg/wk intake) was not significantly associated with blood lipids, composite outcome (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04; P-trend = 0.74), total mortality (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.15; P-trend = 0.38), or major CVD (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.01; P-trend = 0.20). Similar results were observed in ONTARGET/TRANSCEND studies for composite outcome (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.25; P-trend = 0.09), total mortality (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55), and major CVD (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.29; P-trend = 0.12). Conclusions: In 3 large international prospective studies including ∼177,000 individuals, 12,701 deaths, and 13,658 CVD events from 50 countries in 6 continents, we did not find significant associations between egg intake and blood lipids, mortality, or major CVD events. The ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00153101. The PURE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03225586. Am J Clin Nutr 2020;111:795–803.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of estimated sleep duration and naps with mortality and cardiovascular events(European Society of Cardiology, 2019-05-21) Wang, Chuangshi; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Lear, Scott A.; AlHabib, Khalid F.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Koon, Teo; Poirier, Paul; Tse, Lap Ah; Liu, Zhiguang; Rosengren, Annika; Kumar, Rajesh; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Yusoff, Khalid; Monsef, Nahed; Krishnapillai, Vijayakumar; Ismail, Noorhassim; Seron, Pamela; Dans, Antonio; Kruger, Lanthé; Yeates, Karen; Leach, Lloyd; Yusuf, Rita; Orlandini, Andres; Wolyniec, Maria; Bahonar, Ahmad; Mohan, Indu; Khatib, Rasha; Temizhan, Ahmet; Li, Wei; Yusuf, Salim; On behalf of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators; EverestAims To investigate the association of estimated total daily sleep duration and daytime nap duration with deaths and major cardiovascular events. Methods and results We estimated the durations of total daily sleep and daytime naps based on the amount of time in bed and self-reported napping time and examined the associations between them and the composite outcome of deaths and major cardiovascular events in 116 632 participants from seven regions. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, we recorded 4381 deaths and 4365 major cardiovascular events. It showed both shorter (≤6 h/day) and longer (>8 h/day) estimated total sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome when adjusted for age and sex. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and health status, a J-shaped association was observed. Compared with sleeping 6–8 h/day, those who slept ≤6 h/day had a non-significant trend for increased risk of the composite outcome [hazard ratio (HR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–1.20]. As estimated sleep duration increased, we also noticed a significant trend for a greater risk of the composite outcome [HR of 1.05 (0.99–1.12), 1.17 (1.09–1.25), and 1.41 (1.30–1.53) for 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively]. The results were similar for each of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Daytime nap duration was associated with an increased risk of the composite events in those with over 6 h of nocturnal sleep duration, but not in shorter nocturnal sleepers (≤6 h). Conclusion Estimated total sleep duration of 6–8 h per day is associated with the lowest risk of deaths and major cardiovascular events. Daytime napping is associated with increased risks of major cardiovascular events and deaths in those with >6 h of nighttime sleep but not in those sleeping ≤6 h/night.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of handgrip strength to cardiovascular mortality in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients : A subanalysis of the ORIGIN trial(2014-06-15) Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Gómez Arbeláez, Diego; Bosch, Jackie; Dyal, Leanne; Yusuf, Salim; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; The ORIGIN Trial Investigators