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- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoReturn to sport and beyond following intramuscular tendon hamstring injury: A case report of an English Premier League football player(2022-07-05)Background Hamstring strain injuries are the most common type of injury in elite football and are associated with a high risk of reinjury, particularly those involving the intramuscular tendon (IMT). Limited information is available regarding the rehabilitation and return to sport (RTS) processes following such injuries. This case study describes the clinical presentation of an elite football player following IMT hamstring injury, their on- and off-pitch rehabilitation alongside performance monitoring throughout RTS and beyond. Case scenario An elite football player suffered a grade 2c hamstring injury during an English Premier League (EPL) match. The player underwent early post-injury management, alongside progressive off-pitch physical preparation. The ‘control-chaos continuum’ was used as a framework for on-pitch rehabilitation to prepare the player for a return to full team training and competition. Objective and subjective markers of the player's response to progressive on- and off-pitch loading were monitored throughout RTS and beyond. Outcomes The player returned to on-pitch rehabilitation after 11 days, to full team training having achieved weekly pre-injury chronic running load outputs after 35 days and played in the EPL 40 days post-injury. The player did not suffer reinjury for the rest of the EPL season. Conclusion An understanding the unique structural and mechanical properties of the IMT, alongside expected RTS timeframes are important to inform rehabilitation and decision-making processes post-injury. Performance and frequent load-response monitoring throughout RTS and beyond, in conjunction with practitioner experience and effective communication are critical in facilitating effective RTS and reduce risk of reinjury following IMT injury.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoAssociation of Sitting Time with Mortality and Cardiovascular Events in High-Income, Middle-Income, and Low-Income Countries(2022-06-15)Importance High amounts of sitting time are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in high-income countries, but it is unknown whether risks also increase in low- and middle-income countries. Objective To investigate the association of sitting time with mortality and major CVD in countries at different economic levels using data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based cohort study included participants aged 35 to 70 years recruited from January 1, 2003, and followed up until August 31, 2021, in 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries with a median follow-up of 11.1 years. Exposures Daily sitting time measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures The composite of all-cause mortality and major CVD (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Results Of 105 677 participants, 61 925 (58.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 50.4 (9.6) years. During a median follow-up of 11.1 (IQR, 8.6-12.2) years, 6233 deaths and 5696 major cardiovascular events (2349 myocardial infarctions, 2966 strokes, 671 heart failure, and 1792 cardiovascular deaths) were documented. Compared with the reference group (<4 hours per day of sitting), higher sitting time (≥8 hours per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.28; Pfor trend < .001), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31; Pfor trend < .001), and major CVD (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10-1.34; Pfor trend < .001). When stratified by country income levels, the association of sitting time with the composite outcome was stronger in low-income and lower-middle–income countries (≥8 hours per day: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.16-1.44) compared with high-income and upper-middle–income countries (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.19; P for interaction = .02). Compared with those who reported sitting time less than 4 hours per day and high physical activity level, participants who sat for 8 or more hours per day experienced a 17% to 50% higher associated risk of the composite outcome across physical activity levels; and the risk was attenuated along with increased physical activity levels. Conclusions and Relevance High amounts of sitting time were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and CVD in economically diverse settings, especially in low-income and lower-middle–income countries. Reducing sedentary time along with increasing physical activity might be an important strategy for easing the global burden of premature deaths and CVD.
- PublicaciónAcceso abiertoThe Anti-Coronavirus Therapies (ACT) Trials: Design, Baseline Characteristics, and Challenges(2022-06-05)Background: Effective treatments for COVID-19 are urgently needed, but conducting randomized trials during the pandemic has been challenging.Methods: The Anti-Coronavirus Therapy (ACT) trials are parallel factorial international trials that aimed to enroll 3500 outpatients and 2500 inpatients with symptomatic COVID-19. The outpatient trial is evaluating colchicine vs usual care, and aspirin vs usual care. The primary outcome for the colchicine randomization is hospitalization or death, and for the aspirin randomization, it is major thrombosis, hospitalization, or death. The inpatient trial is evaluating colchicine vs usual care, and the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily vs usual care. The primary outcome for the colchicine randomization is need for high-flow oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, or death, and for the rivaroxaban plus aspirin randomization, it is major thrombotic events, need for high-flow oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, or death. Results: At the completion of enrollment on February 10, 2022, the outpatient trial had enrolled 3917 patients, and the inpatient trial had enrolled 2611 patients. Challenges encountered included lack of preliminary data about the interventions under evaluation, uncertainties related to the expected event rates, delays in regulatory and ethics approvals, and in obtaining study interventions, as well as the changing pattern of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The ACT trials will determine the efficacy of antiinflammatory therapy with colchicine, and antithrombotic therapy with aspirin given alone or in combination with rivaroxaban, across the spectrum of mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19. Lessons learned from the conduct of these trials will inform planning of future trials.
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