Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal association boosted the arsenic resistance in crops with special responsiveness to rice plant
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Arsenic (As) is a potentially toxic metalloid classified as a group 1 carcinogen, released in the soil environment because of natural as well as different anthropogenic activities. The presence of excess As content in soil and irrigation water enhances the As accumulation in rice grains. Millions of people who consume these contaminated grains are exposed to severe health issues. Increased arsenic uptake causes oxidative stress in plants, which combats by inducing the expression of several genes and signaling the biosynthesis of various antioxidants and phytochelatins. As toxicity reduces crop productivity, so it's critical to improve plant growth in As-contaminated environments while minimizing metal translocation to grains. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) is considered a sustainable way to tolerate As toxicity. Organic pollutants metabolism by AMF, degradation of these soil contaminants by AMF exudation enzymes, and elimination of the pollutants by plant uptake and accumulation are the principal mechanisms of AMF mediated bioremediation. However, plant responses are established to vary with the host plant and the species of AMF. In our review, we showed that understanding the community composition, diversity, and gene regulation of AMF in the rice ecosystem played a critical role in maximizing As uptake and their potential in sustainable rice and other crops production. It has been reviewed that AMF has the potential to survive in an extremely As toxic condition and it potentially aids to improve the tolerance level of host plants.